We created this page many years ago with papers that were of interest. Although these papers are still relevant, this page is no longer being updated.

For recent papers, see the individual pages on this website. Scroll to the References heading at the end of each page.


A limitation of 2-stage serological testing for Lyme disease: enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot assay are not independent tests 
Comparative evaluation of two enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods and three Western Blot methods for the diagnosis of culture-confirmed early Lyme borreliosis in Italy 
Comparison of Western immunoblotting and the C6 Lyme antibody test for laboratory detection of Lyme disease 
Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis using enzyme immunoanalysis 
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescent assay, and recombinant immunoblotting in the serodiagnosis of early Lyme borreliosis 
Evaluation of fifteen commercially available serological tests for diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. 
Generalizability in two clinical trials of Lyme disease


Bilateral simultaneous facial paralysis–differential diagnosis and treatment options. A case report and review of literature. 
C6 test as an indicator of therapy outcome for patients with localized or disseminated lyme borreliosis. 
Comparison of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated from specimens obtained simultaneously from two different sites of infection in individual patients. 
Comparison of In Vitro Activities of Ketolides, Macrolides, and an Azalide against the Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi 
Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA and complement membrane attack complex deposits in the sural nerve of a patient with chronic polyneuropathy and tertiary Lyme disease. 
Differential Survival of Lyme Borreliosis Spirochetes in Ticks That Feed on Birds 
Emergence of lyme arthritis after autologous chondrocyte transplantation. 
Genetic diversity among Borrelia strains determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the ospC gene and its association with invasiveness. 
Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases 
Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato with Epstein-Barr virus in lymphoblastoid cells 
Is Lyme disease always poly microbial?–The jigsaw hypothesis.
Limited role of rodents as reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ireland. 
Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years. 
Panic attacks may reveal previously unsuspected chronic disseminated lyme disease 
PCR-reverse line blot typing method underscores the genomic heterogeneity of Borrelia valaisiana species and suggests its potential involvement in Lyme disease. 
Risk and prevention of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis and other tick-borne diseases. 
Role of outer membrane architecture in immune evasion of Treponema and Borrelia burgdorferi. 
Serodiagnosis of erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans by the Borrelia burgdorferi flagellum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 
The differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: classification and clinical features of relapsing and progressive neurological syndromes. 
Tick-borne infections in children: epidemiology, clinical manifestations and optimal management strategies 
Vitamin A, E and C serum concentration of patients showing antibodies anti-Borrelia burgdorferi presence–non-symptomatic carriers 
Vector Interactions and Molecular Adaptations of Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes Associated with Transmission by Ticks

Other Lyme

An experimental study of the capacity of the rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst, 1913) to ingest, maintain and transmit Borrelia. 
Analysis of the ability of spirochete species associated with relapsing fever, avian borreliosis, and epizootic bovine abortion to bind factor H and cleave c3b. 
Analysis of weather effects on variability in Lyme disease incidence 
Borrelia burgdorferi Binds to, Invades, and Colonizes Native Type I Collagen Lattices 
Borreliosis associated with Lofgren’s syndrome 
Capillary feeding of specific dsRNA induces silencing of the isac gene in nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks. 
Cardiac abnormalities of lyme borreliosis 
Enzootic transmission of Babesia divergens among cottontail rabbits on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. 
Fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography studies of acute brainstem Lyme neuroborreliosis 
Geographical and seasonal correlation of multiple sclerosis to sporadic schizophrenia 
Immunogenicity of Borrelia burgdorferi arthritis-related protein. 
Invasion of human skin fibroblasts by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. 
Isolation of Lyme Disease Borrelia from Puffins (Fratercula arctica) and Seabird Ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faeroe Islands 
Lyme polyradiculoneuropathy presenting as increasing abdominal girth. 
Lyme disease in the eighteenth century
Populations of Human T Lymphocytes That Traverse the Vascular Endothelium Stimulated by Borrelia burgdorferi Are Enriched with Cells That Secrete Gamma Interferon 
Prevalence of infection with Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodents from an endemic focus of tularemia in Bulgaria 
Risk of tick-borne bacterial diseases among workers of Roztocze National Park (south-eastern Poland). 
Seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies among patients with confirmed sarcoidosis in a region of Japan where Lyme borreliosis is endemic. 
Substantial Rise in the Prevalence of Lyme Borreliosis Spirochetes in a Region of Western Germany over a 10-Year Period 
Survey of tickborne infections in Denmark 
The affection of the population with Borrelia and the incidence of Lyme disease 
The ecology of infectious disease: effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk. 
Unusual features in the epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis 

Other Tick Borne Diseases

An Unusual Case of Cat-Scratch Disease from Bartonella quintana Mimicking Inflammatory Breast Cancer in a 50-Year-Old Woman. 
Anti-babesial compounds from Curcuma zedoaria 
Bartonella henselae bacteraemia in domestic cats from Auckland. 
Bartonellosis and a possible role of Ixodes ticks (family Ixodidae, order Parasitiformes) in the transmission of pathogenic Bartonella bacteria 
Cat or dog ownership and seroprevalence of ehrlichiosis, QFever, and cat-scratch disease 
Cervids as Babesiae hosts, Slovenia 
Correlation between serum doxycycline concentrations and serologic evolution in patients with Coxiella burnetii endocarditis. 
Delayed Clearance of Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection in CD4(+) T-Cell Knockout Mice dagger. 
Disruption of a host-parasite system following the introduction of an exotic host species 
Divergent interactions of Ehrlichia chaffeensis- and Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected leukocytes with endothelial cell barriers. 
Enzootic transmission of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) bovis in Nantucket cottontail rabbits. 
Fatal case of endocarditis associated with Bartonella henselae type I infection in a domestic cat 
Fatal experimental transplacental Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs 
Growth-inhibitory effect of heparin on Babesia parasites. 
Molecular characterization of human pathogen Babesia EU1 in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovenia 
Persistent Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection occurs in the absence of functional major histocompatibility complex class II genes. 
Predominance of Ehrlichia ewingii in Missouri dogs. 
Sequence and expression analysis of virB9 of the type IV secretion system of Ehrlichia canis strains in ticks, dogs, and cultured cells. 
Survival Strategy of Obligately Intracellular Ehrlichia chaffeensis: Novel Modulation of Immune Response and Host Cell Cycles. 
Aponomma hydrosauri, the reptile-associated tick reservoir of Rickettsia honei on Flinders Island, Australia. 
Chronic polyneuropathies in Vest-Agder, Norway 
Impact of mannose-binding lectin on susceptibility to infectious diseases. 
Inability of a variant strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect mice. 
Mechanisms of variable p44 expression by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. 


Clinical characteristics of post-treatment reactions to ivermectin/albendazole for Wuchereria bancrofti in a region co-endemic for Mansonella perstans. 
Dendritic cells phagocytose and are activated by Treponema pallidum. 
Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to Toxocara canis: case report and review of the literature. 
Predictors of response to treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. 
Protection against syphilis correlates with specificity of antibodies to the variable regions of Treponema pallidum repeat protein K. 
Study of animal-borne infections in the mucosas of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and population-based controls. 
The burden of chronic disease. 
Ticks and politics 
Transmission of Anaplasma marginale by Boophilus microplus: retention of vector competence in the absence of vector-pathogen interaction. 

Abstracts on the persistence of Lyme

A proposal for the reliable culture of Borrelia burgdorferi from patients with chronic Lyme disease, even from those previously aggressively treated 
Antibodies against whole sonicated Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, 41-kilodalton flagellin, and P39 protein in patients with PCR- or culture-proven late Lyme borreliosis 
Borrelia burgdorferi detected by culture and PCR in clinical relapse of disseminated Lyme borreliosis 
Borrelia burgdorferi myositis: report of eight patients 
Chronic neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease 
Chronic septic arthritis caused by Borreliaburgdorferi 
Clinical implications of delayed growth of the Lyme borreliosis spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi 
Clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and effect of antibiotic treatment on Lyme borreliosis in dogs. 
Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi from joint fluid three months after treatment of facial palsy due to Lyme borreliosis 
Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Antigen in Urine from Patients with Lyme Borreliosis 
Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in cerebrospinal fluid 
Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction in synovial membrane, but not in synovial fluid from patients with persisting Lyme arthritis after antibiotic therapy 
Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in synovial fluid from patients with Lyme arthritis 
Diagnostic Hints and Treatment Guidelines for Lyme and Other Tick Borne Illnesses 
Electron microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction of spirochetes from the blood of patients with Lyme disease 
Evidence-based guidelines for the management of Lyme disease 
Experimental Lyme disease in dogs produces arthritis and persistent infection 
Fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with Lyme disease 
Fatal encephalitis caused by concomitant infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia burgdorferi 
Fibroblasts protect the Lyme Disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi from ceftriaxone in vitro 
First isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from an iris biopsy 
Formation and Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi Spheroblast-L Form Variants 
Inflammatory brain changes in Lyme borreliosis 
Intracellular localization of Borrelia burgdorferi within human endothelial cells 
Invasion of human neuronal and glial cells by an infectious strain of Borrelia burgdorferi.
Invasion of human skin fibroblasts by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi 
Invasion of the central nervous system by Borrelia burgdorferi in acute disseminated infection 
Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from the myocardium of a patient with longstanding cardiomyopathy 
Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi in the cerebrospinal fluid of 3 children with neurological involvement 
Kill kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi and bacterial findings in relation to the treatment of Lyme borreliosis 
Latent Lyme neuroborreliosis: presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in the cerebrospinal fluid without concurrent inflammatory signs 
Localization of Borrelia burgdorferi in the nervous system and other organs in a nonhuman primate model of Lyme disease 
Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years 
Lyme borreliosis–a review of the late stages and treatment of four cases 
Lyme Disease: An Infectious and Postinfectious Syndrome 
Lyme disease: point/counterpoint. 
Lyme disease: The sensible pursuit of answers 
Lyme meningoencephalitis: report of a severe, penicillin-resistant case. 
Molecular detection of persistent Borrelia burgdorferi in a man with dermatomyositis 
Neuroborreliosis in the nonhuman primate: Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the central nervous system 
Pars plana vitrectomy in Borrelia burgdorferi endophthalmitis 
Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected dogs after antibiotic treatment 
Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ligamentous tissue from a patient with chronic Lyme Borreliosis 
Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with Lyme borreliosis 
Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in resolved erythema migrans lesions. 
Persistence of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in patients with Lyme arthritis 
Persistence of Organisms for Lyme Arthritis 
Persistent PCR Positivity in a patient being treated for Lyme disease 
Physician Preferences in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Disease in the United States 
Pulsed high-dose cefotaxime therapy in refractory Lyme Borreliosis 
Randomized comparison of ceftriaxone and cefotaxime in Lyme neuroborreliosis 
Recurrent and relapsing borreliosis of the nervous system 
Recurrent erythema migrans despite extended antibiotic treatment with minocycline in a patient with persisting Borrelia burgdorferi infection 
Seronegative Chronic Relapsing Neuroborreliosis 
Spirochetes in the spleen of a patient with chronic Lyme disease 
Subacute multiple-site osteomyelitis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi 
Successful treatment of Lyme encephalopathy with intravenous ceftriaxone 
Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in antibiotically treated patients with Lyme borreliosis 
The fate of Borrelia burgdorferi in mouse macrophages: destruction, survival, recovery 
The long-term clinical outcomes of Lyme disease. A population-based retrospective cohort study 
The Lyme Wars: time to listen 
The persistence of spirochetal nucleic acids in active Lyme arthritis 
The western immunoblot for Lyme disease: determination of sensitivity, specificity, and interpretive criteria with use of commercially available performance panels 
Treatment of Late Lyme Borreliosis 
Treatment of refractory chronic Lyme arthritis with arthroscopic synovectomy

Lancet Articles

Controversy brewing over Lyme disease testing sfwoodcock, Chair, Lyme Disease Action (Registered Charity). Lancet Infectious Diseases 2006;

Real numbers of Lyme patients are not known in the UK sfwoodcock, Chair, Lyme Disease Action (Registered Charity). Lancet 2005; comment

A personal experience of borreliosis in the UK A Tweedie, AHP, not given. Lancet 2005; comment

The gaps underneath the surface Stella Huyshe. Lancet 2005; comment

Lyme disease: scratching the surface S Phillips et Al. The Lancet 2005; 366:1771

Reply to Lyme borreliosis: perspective of a scientist–patient. S Woodcock Chairperson, Lyme Disease Action. The Lancet Infectious Diseases Feb 2005; 70-71.

Lyme borreliosis: perspective of a scientist–patient. Hamlen R. Lancet Infect Dis 2004; 4: 603–4.

Frustrating survey of chronic fatigue. Lancet 1996; 348: 971